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Debian/Linux 设备挂载

Qspy posted @ 2013年9月28日 14:21 in Debian with tags mount debian , 7621 阅读

mount 命令用于挂载光盘镜像文件、移动硬盘、U盘、Windows和NFS网络共享等等。

mount/umount 指令解析

"mount" 命令参数非常多,可以在终端下,键入 "man mount" 获取帮助。
使用 "mount" 命令时,经常需要查询磁盘设备信息,这时可使用 "fdisk" 指令或查看 "/proc/partitions" 信息

命令格式

mount [-t vfstype] [-o options] device dir
其中:

1."-t vfstype" 指定文件系统的类型,通常不必指定。mount 会自动选择正确的类型。常用类型有:
§   光盘或光盘镜像:iso9660
§   DOS fat16文件系统:msdos
§   Windows 9x fat32文件系统:vfat
§   Windows NT ntfs文件系统:ntfs
§   Mount Windows文件网络共享:smbfs
§   UNIX(LINUX) 文件网络共享:nfs

2."-o options" 主要用来描述设备或档案的挂接方式。常用的参数有:
§   loop:用来把一个文件当成硬盘分区挂接上系统
§   ro:采用只读方式挂接设备
§   rw:采用读写方式挂接设备
§   iocharset:指定访问文件系统所用字符集


3."device" 要挂接(mount)的设备。

4."dir" 设备在系统上的挂接点(mount point)。
 

自动挂载


自动挂载即利用 /etc/fstab 文件,详细情况请参考 fstab 用法。

 

磁盘分区挂载

如果安装了双系统,或者使用移动硬盘,那么就要使用磁盘分区挂载。
本地磁盘和移动硬盘的区别仅在于,本地磁盘通常使用 IDE 或 SATA 接口连接,移动硬盘通常使用 USB 接口连接。
对linux系统而言,USB接口的移动硬盘是当作 SCSI 设备对待的。

1. 查看磁盘信息 "fdisk -l"

注意:"fdisk" 需要 root 权限

$ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 250.1 GB, 250059350016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 30401 cylinders, total 488397168 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xafdc0a3f

  Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048     2457599     1227776    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda2         2457600   139827199    68684800    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda3       467916800   488394751    10238976    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda4       139829246   467916799   164043777    5  Extended

Partition 4 does not start on physical sector boundary.
/dev/sda5       139829248   140218367      194560   83  Linux
/dev/sda6       140220416   218343423    39061504   83  Linux
/dev/sda7       218345472   249593855    15624192   83  Linux
/dev/sda8       249595904   386312191    68358144    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda9       386314240   467916799    40801280    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT

上方信息中说明本地磁盘(/dev/sda) 中包含 4 个主分区( sda1/sda2/sda3/sda4 ),其中 sda1/sda2/sda3 是Windows分区; sda4 是扩展分区,该扩展分区包含 5 个逻辑分区 ( sda5/sda6/sda7/sda8/sda9 ),其中 sda5/sda6/sda7 是 Linux 分区,sda8/sda9 是Windows分区。

如果要挂载的是移动硬盘,应在连接移动硬盘后,再次使用 "fdisk -l" 查询。

$ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 250.1 GB, 250059350016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 30401 cylinders, total 488397168 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xafdc0a3f

  Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048     2457599     1227776    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda2         2457600   139827199    68684800    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda3       467916800   488394751    10238976    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda4       139829246   467916799   164043777    5  Extended
Partition 4 does not start on physical sector boundary.

/dev/sda5       139829248   140218367      194560   83  Linux
/dev/sda6       140220416   218343423    39061504   83  Linux
/dev/sda7       218345472   249593855    15624192   83  Linux
/dev/sda8       249595904   386312191    68358144    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda9       386314240   467916799    40801280    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT

Partition table entries are not in disk order

Disk /dev/sdb: 500.1 GB, 500107862016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 60801 cylinders, total 976773168 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xef943d9e

  Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1   *        2048   112660479    56329216    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sdb2       112662528   976769023   432053248    5  Extended
/dev/sdb5       112664576   419887103   153611264    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sdb6       419890968   665653274   122881153+   7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sdb7       665653338   809017334    71681998+   7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sdb8       809017398   874369754    32676178+   7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sdb9       874371072   976769023    51198976    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT

上方信息中可以看到多了一个移动硬盘(/dev/sdb),其包含了两个主分区( /sdb1/sdb2 ) 和 5 个逻辑分区( sda5/sda6/sda7/sda8/sda9 ),所有均是 Windows 分区

2. 挂载分区

执行 "mount" 指令前,须先确保挂载点 ("dir") 是存在的,可以用 "mkdir" 指令创建挂载点。
这里假设挂载点为 "/mnt/hd1" 。

挂载 FAT /FAT32分区

"fdisk -l" 查询信息如:
 

$ sudo fdisk -l
Disk /dev/sdc: 131 MB, 131072000 bytes
239 heads, 31 sectors/track, 34 cylinders, total 256000 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

  Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdc1   *          63      255999      127968+   6  FAT16

$ sudo fdisk -l
Disk /dev/sdb: 131 MB, 131072000 bytes
239 heads, 31 sectors/track, 34 cylinders, total 256000 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

  Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1   *          63      255999      127968+   b  W95 FAT32

挂载命令:

$sudo mount -t vfat /dev/sdb1 /mnt/hd1

避免乱码的挂载命令:

$sudo mount -t vfat -o iocharset=cp936 /dev/sdb1 /mnt/hd1

 

挂载 NTFS 分区

在Linux系统中,NTFS分区需要 ntfs-3g 包支持,在 Debian 中安装命令如下:

$sudo apt-get install ntfs-3g

挂载命令:

$sudo mount -t ntfs /dev/sdb1 /mnt/hd1

避免乱码的挂载命令:

$sudo mount -t ntfs -o iocharset=cp936 /dev/sdb1 /mnt/hd1

 

挂载 exFAT 分区

在Linux系统中,exFAT分区需要 exfat-fuse 包支持,在 Debian 中安装命令如下:

$sudo apt-get install exfat-fuse

挂载命令:

$sudo mount -t exfat-fuse -o allow_other /dev/sdb1 /mnt/hd1

 

U盘挂载

和USB接口的移动硬盘相同对linux系统而言U盘也是当作SCSI设备对待的。使用方法和移动硬盘完全相同。请参考前一节<磁盘分区挂载>

SD/MMC卡挂载

SD/MMC挂载和磁盘分区挂载的不同在于设备名,SD/MMC默认的名称是 "/dev/mmcblk0p1"。
假设挂载点是 "/mnt/sdmmc"
挂载命令:

sudo mount -t vfat /dev/mmcblk0p1 /mnt/sdmmc

注:如果SD/MMC 是其他文件系统,请更换参数 "-t vfat"

Windows 文档共享挂载

Windows网络共享的核心是SMB/CIFS,在linux下要挂载(mount)windows的磁盘共享,就必须安装和使用samba软件包。
Debian 安装 samba:

$sudo apt-get install samba

假设挂载点为 "/mnt/samba",挂载

$sudo mount -t smbfs -o username=administrator,password=pldy123 //10.140.133.23/c$ /mnt/samba

说明:
administrator 是Windows电脑的登录用户名
pldy123 是administrator的登录密码
10.140.133.23 是windows电脑的ip地址
c$ 是Windows电脑的一个磁盘共享

如此就能够在linux系统上通过/mnt/samba来访问windows系统磁盘上的文档了。

UNIX/Linux 系统 NFS 文档共享

类似于windows的网络共享,UNIX(Linux)系统也有自己的网络共享,那就是NFS(网络文档系统)。
一般 Linux 安装时都会默认安装 NFS 支持,但可能没有安装 NFS Server。做为共享端的 Linux 是需要安装NFS Server的,这部分将另开篇幅介绍。
这里假设共享端的 NFS Server 和共享文档已设置好,并且挂载点为 "/mnt/nfs"。

$sudo mount -t nfs -o rw 10.140.133.9:/export/home/sunky /mnt/nfs

说明:
10.140.133.9 是NFS服务端的主机IP地址,当然这里也能够使用主机名,但必须在本机/etc/hosts文档里增加服务端ip定义。
/export/home/sunky 为服务端共享的目录。

如此就能够在linux客户端通过/mnt/nfs来访问其他linux系统或UNIX系统以NFS方式共享出来的文档了。
 

CDROM或镜像文件挂载

CDROM或ISO文件挂载

CDROM挂载

在现有的Linux系统中,CDROM一般都是默认挂载的,只要放入光盘就可以了。
如果没挂载,则可以用下面的命令实现挂载,这里假设挂载点是 "/media/cdrom":

$sudo mount -t iso9660 -r /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom

ISO镜像挂载

假设ISO镜像文件是 "/home/sunky/mydisk.iso",挂载点是 "/mnt/vcdrom"。
挂载命令如下:

$sudo mount -o loop -t iso9660 /home/sunky/mydisk.iso /mnt/vcdrom

附录1: 从光盘制作光盘映像文档

$sudo cp /dev/cdrom /home/sunky/mydisk.iso

$sudo dd if=/dev/cdrom of=/home/sunky/mydisk.iso

一般情况,使用 "dd" 指令制作光盘映像居多。

附录2: 将文档和目录制作成光盘映像文档

这里将使用 "mkisofs" 指令制作光盘映像。但在 Debian 中,仓库中没有这个包,需要网上查找 mkisofs 的 deb 包安装;或者使用 "genisoimage" 代替这个指令。

$sudo mkisofs -r -J -V mydisk -o /home/sunky/mydisk.iso /home/sunky/ mydir

说明:
mkisofs 是制作光盘映像指令
-r 参数1 Rock Ridge
-J 参数2 Joliet
-V mydisk 将卷标设置为 "mydisk"
-o /home/sunky/mydisk.iso 是在 /home/sunky 目录下创建 mydisk.iso 映像文件
/home/sunky/mydir 指的是制作光盘映像的源目录

$sudo genisoimage -udf -allow-limited-size -r -J -joliet-long -V mydisk -o /home/sunky/mydisk.iso /home/sunky/ mydir

说明:
genisoimage 是制作光盘映像指令
-udf 指文件系统是 UDF filesystem
-allow-limited-size 允许单文件超过 2G 大小
-r 指 Rock Ridge
-J 指 Joliet
-joliet-long 允许超长文件名
-V mydisk 将卷标设置为 "mydisk"
-o /home/sunky/mydisk.iso 是在 /home/sunky 目录下创建 mydisk.iso 映像文件
/home/sunky/mydir 指的是制作光盘映像的源目录

上面两条命令将/home/sunky/mydir目录下任何的目录和文档制作成光盘映像文档/home/sunky/mydisk.iso,光盘卷标为:mydisk

IMG镜像挂载

IMG镜像指的是后缀为 ".img" 的镜像文件。这类文件和 ISO文件略有不同,主要原因是其可能带有文件系统。
这里假设挂载点是 "/mnt/img",要挂载的镜像是"office2007pro.chs.img"

1. 查看IMG镜像

$ sudo fdisk office2007pro.chs.img  -lu
Disk office2007pro.chs.img: 694 MB, 694059008 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 84 cylinders, total 1355584 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk office2007pro.chs.img doesn't contain a valid partition table

从最后一行可以看出,该IMG并没有带文件系统

2.载入到loop

载入之前,先执行:

$ sudo losetup -a

这时发现并没有任何有关"office2007pro.chs.img"的信息输出
载入使用下面命令:

$ sudo losetup /dev/loop0 office2007pro.chs.img
$ sudo losetup -a
/dev/loop0: [0808]:15356 (/home/wang/work/office2007pro.chs.img)

可以发现,载入后再使用 "losetup -a"查询时就有 "office2007pro.chs.img"的信息了,说明载入成功。
如果载入不成功,可以修改 "/dev/loop0" 为 "/dev/loop1",依此类推。

3.挂载IMG镜像

$ sudo mount -o loop,offset=512 office2007pro.chs.img /mnt/img
mount: you must specify the filesystem type
$ sudo mount -o loop office2007pro.chs.img /mnt/img
mount: warning: /media/usb0/ seems to be mounted read-only.

从上方可以发现,如果没有带文件系统的挂载,是不需要带 "offset=" 参数的;反之,则是需要的。
当要使用 "offset=" 参数时,其值可以用公式 : offset=start_sector x sector_byte_size(即offse=1*512) 计算得来

参考

linux的mount命令详解

Linux 下ros img镜像挂载
 

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